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e路发体育下载链接

文章来源:SEO    发布时间:2020-04-02 20:17:33  【字号:      】

e路发体育下载链接LiuShijin,YuBin,ZhangLiqun,YangJianlong,LiJianwei,ChenChangshengFangJinThereweresignstharnmentanditsgradualeffect,theen,weshouldattachgreatimportanttoissuessuchassharpeningemploymentcontradictionsrelatedtoeconomicoperation,dramaticdeclineofenterprisesperformance,inflationarypressurerelatedtotheswiftgrowthofcreditf,macroeconomicpoliciesshouldfocusonpromotingthereboundofmarket-drivendomesticdemand,whilemaintainingthescopeandeffectivenessofgovernmentinvestments,avoidingasecondrincethesecondhalfof2008,%%,whichwasnotonlyduetotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandaconspicuousslowergrowthofworldeconomy,butalsorelatedtothefactthatdomesticleadingsectors,suchasrealestateandautoindustries,entereda,thedevelopmentpatternonwhicheconomicgrowthhasbeenrelyingforalongperiodoftimewasbolsteredbylowpriceandhighinvestmentofelements,suchaslaborforce,landandresources,soitbecomesdifficulttokeepitsustainedwhensignificantchangestakeplaceininternationalanddomesticsituation,,thegro,thechangeinmarketexpectationsandreflectionofenterprises,theover-pessimisticexpectationsweregraduallymultiplied,andthemark,heavyindustrywhichholdsaconsiderablysignificant,lotsofintermediateproductsandlargeinvestmentdemand,oncetheultimatedemandshrinks,itseffectwillspreadalongtheindustrialc,withahighforeigntradedependenceratio,pricesofcommoditiesagainstthebackgroundoffinancialspeculationininternationalmarketsdramaticallydeclinedandimposedsevereimpactsondomesticpricesystem,whichgeneratedthephenomenonof"over-adjustment",differentfrompreviousones,wasbasedontheconditionsofChina,enterp,lackingofcareformarketchanges,imulusmeasuresaccordingtothechangesininternationalanddomesticeconomicsituation,includingdramaticallyincreasingfinancialinputandimplementingstructuraltaxreduction,establishingamassiveplanforindustryadjustmentandreinvigoration,providingvigoroussupporttoscien,,,i,somekeyindicators,s,,%.Fourth,thedeclineofoutputandsalesvolumeofkeyproducts,suchaspowergeneration,rawcoal,cement,steel,,lastQ4andQ1in2009,thesituationofmajoreconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,,domesticinvestmentandconsumptiondemandsaretobefurtherlaunched,andthedownwardpre,%,th%yearonyear,%,theresultofaquestionnaireconductedbyChineseEntrepreneurSurveySystemonover1,000entrepreneursshowedthatover50%ofentrep,someeconomicindicatorsarereturningtonormalintheshortrun,overalleconomicoperationispreliminarilystabilizing,eryoftheOverallEconomyThefactorsinfluencingeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearcanbeobservedfromthreeaspectsincludingforeigndemand,tent,,therecoveryofmarket-d,butthepossibilityoffurtherslideisnotexcludedForeigndemanddramaticallydeclinedowingtotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandeconomicrecession,anditisinevitableforChina,foreignimportersdramaticallycompressedstockinordertolowermarketrisksandreducetied-upfunds,,theexchangerateofsomecountriesdramaticallydepreciated,whichdamagedthecompetitivenessofChinasexportreportednegativegrowthonayear-on-yearbasisinlastNovember,,processingtrade-orientedITproductsbecamethemainfactorthatdraggedexportslide,whilethedeclineofexportvolumeoflightindustryandtextileproducts,suchasgarments,shoes,,,thankstotheincreasedexportrebateratesforlabor-intensiveproducts,thereisasignificantreboundinexports,,,exportsinprocessingtradedroppedlessthanthatinJan,,Americancommoditiesandothershopsfordailynecessities,exclusiveboutiquesforclothing,furniturestoresandnon-fuelcommoditiesofWal-Mart%,%,%%,asdevelopedcountrieshavetakeneconomicstimulusplansinsuccession,ifprivateconsumptionceasestoslip,inventoryadjustmentsofoverseasretailerswillbecompletedinthesecondquarter,,whileexportgrowthdramaticallysloweddowninbothJanuaryandFebruary,%yearonyear....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:LiuShijin,JinRenqing,:ofthetaskforceparticipatedinthediscussion.BySheYu,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo118,2012Thebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationisanimportantchannelforrealizingtheequalizationofthebasicpubliceducationservices,evokedintensepublicresponseandproducedterriblynegativeinfluence,"choiceofschools"hasbeenthedisequilibriumineducationalresourcesbetweenvariousschools,,behindthe"choosingofschools"evenliesthe"choosingofteachers".Tofacilitatethebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationistosetabouttheworkoneducationalinput,resourcesofteachersandschoolstandardization,hebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationliesintheequilibriuminresourcesofteachers,whiletheequilibriuminresourcesoftethattheregionalresourcesofteacherscanbeadjustedintermsofknowledgestructure,disciplinarystructure,agestructure,titlestructureandmainstaystructuresoastograduallybridgethegapsamongtheschools,toconscientiouslyimprovetheteachingqualitiesofschoolswithflimsyfoundationsorschoolsinremoteareas,tocooldownthe"school-choosingcraze",establishingtheteachermobilitysystemisacriticalmoveforfacilitatingthebalancedallocationofeducationalresourcesaswellasanimportantbreakthroughtocontainthe"choosingofschools".Internationally,constructionofsuchasystemisalsothemosteffectivepolicy,the"regularmobilitysystem"1forteachersofJapaneseelementaryandmiddleschoolshasbeenanextremelycrucialchannelforfacilitatingthebalanceddevelopmentofteachersamongtheschoolstoboostinturnthebalanceddevelopmentofeducationamongtheschools"educationequalization"policy2focusedontheflowofteachers,SouthKoreahassubstantiallyenhancedthequalityofitscompulsoryeducationacrosstheboardandhasbecomeaworldwideparagonofhigheducationpopularization,"zonesofeducationpriority"policy3andbyproceedingfromteachercultivationcriteriaandunityofwagesofelementaryandsecondaryschoolteachers,Francehascreatedconditionsforflowofteachersonalargescale,thusequalizingtheallocationofteacherstoahigherext,quiteanumberofpeoplenowstillworryaboutthe"similarityofschoolstobeeasilyincurredbyflowofteachers".Compulsoryeducationisamandatoryfreeeducationpracticedbyrvicesthatthecoreofcompulsoryeducationistolaystressonboostingfairnessratherthanseekingdistinctivenesswithregardtobasicschoolfacilities(equipment,booksandschoolbuildings),teachersandunifiedcriteriaonmanagementand,moreover,emphasisshouldbelaidontheprincipleof"ensuringbasiceducationwithmoderatelevels"and"limitingboththelowestandthehighestlevelofeducationfacilities".Internationalexperiencesalsosuggestthatjobrotationandequalizationoffacilities4favorstheequalizationofteachingresourcesandtrentoftheTeacherMobilitySystemIthasbeenexpresslyputforwardintheOutlinefortheNationalMedium-andLong-termEducationalReformandDevelopmentPlan(2010~2020)(hereinafterreferredtoastheEducationPlanningOutline)that"educationalresourcesshouldbeallocatedreasonably"andthat"thesystemforinterchangeofteachersandschoolmastersshouldbecarriedoutwithincounties(regions)".Inrecentyears,usefulex,however,isratherlimitedonthewholeacrossthecountry,andtheimplementationo,whencarryingoutthepoliciesandregulations,withtheproblemsontheinterestandinstitutionallevelsthatneedtobesolvedurgently.

ByZhangChenghui,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo030,hmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemhasbeenstudiedforoveradecade,buttherehasbeennosubsTheargumentshavefocusedonthefollowingissues.(1)Iscatastropheinsuranceapolicy-orientedorcommercialsystemHowdowedefinethegovernmentfunctionsinacatastropheinsurancesystemDoesthegovernmentthatestablishesacatastropheinsurancesystemhavetocontributefundsandifsoinwhatwaytomakecontributionsAretheinsurancecompaniesengagedincatastropheinsuranceandthegeneralpublicpurchasingcatastropheinsuranceentitledtopo,ranceandthatexcessdependenceongovernmentsupportmeansthisinsuranceisequivalenttoadirectfiscaldisasterreliefandthesystemdesignwillbecomemeaningless.(2)HowdothegovernmentdepartmentscoordinatewitheachotherWhichgovernmentdepartmentshouldexerciseleadershipoverestablishingcatastropheinsuran,theinsuranceregulatorydepartment,thecivilaffairsdepartment,theprofessionalmanagementdepartments(suchasthoseinchargeofearthquakeadministration,meteorologicaladministration,oceanicadministrationandtheMinistryofWaterResources),theNationalDisasterReductionCommission,disciplinesanddepartments,itrequiresnotonlyclearguidelinesandreliabledesigns,,itwilllacktherequiredauthorityandabilitytocoordinate;butifanadministrativeinstitutionoftheStateCouncildoesthejob,snationalconditionsManyofthepastresearchesaredevotedtothei,,designedforaspecificcatastropheorfordiversecatastrophesShoulditcoverthewholecountryorbeginwithjustoneprovinceHowtoensurethesystemtobebothscientificandoperableWhichoperationalmodelandriskdiversificationmodeshacatastrophefundorthemodelofacatastrophereinsurancecompanyandshoulditendowthereycountriesindicatethatthecoretasksofaca,andtheiroperationshavematuremodels,includingthenonprofitinstitutionalgovernancestructure,,,manyofthemhavebecomeadministrativeonesandhaveastrongimpulseforself-expansio,,whattypeofinstitutionsshouldexerciseleadershipoverthecatastropheinsurancesystemWhiledirectgovernmentmanagementisapparentlyimproper,for-profitcoanagementinstitutionisestablishedtodothejob,howcanweeffectivelycontainitsimpulseforscaleexpansionandrationallycontrolitsoperatingcostsoastomakethecatastropheinsurdingtoChinasnationalconditionsComparedwithothercountries,Chinahassomeuniquecharacteristics,,Chinaisavastcountry,,Sichuan,Qinghai,Tibetandotherplacesinthewestregiona,rainstorms,mudflowsandothernaturaldisastersthathitt,notonlythegeneralpublichasahighacceptanceofinsuranceproducts,butalsohasagreatercapacitytoadoptadvanceddisasterprevent,asthedevelopedregionshaveahighpopulationdensityandahighassetsvalue,,wecannotsimplyc,wecannotintroduceuniformfeerate,weshoulddesignascientificandrationalcatastropheinsurance,theinsuranceindustryasawholeisunderdeveloiseforcatastropheriskmanagementmakesitimpossibletomobilizethe,thepublicpreparednessfornaturaldisastersisverylow,theinfrastructurefordisasterpreventionandlossreductionisunavailable,andsomemeasuresfo,Chinafindsitdifficulttorelyoncommercial,whichhasauthorityandcoordinatingability,shouldexerciseleadershipovertheestablishmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemandshoulde,,skdiversification,,itisnecessarytoadoptacompulsoryorsemi-compulsorymarketingapproach.亚游足球网址ByFanXuezhi,TaskForceon"ImprovingMechanismfortheConstructionandManagementofSmallWaterConservancyWorks",ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo95,Five-YearPlanperiod,,theconstructionofwaterconservancyworksscalednewheights,,,thesmallwaterconserv,ilitiesforthecontinuousconstructionoflargeirrigatedareasandtransformedthesupportingandwater-savinrrigatedareabyanaccumulativetotalof50millionmu,improvedanirrigatedareaof190millionmu,increasedthewater-savingirrigationareaby85millionmuandraisedtheefctively75%and90%ofthenationaltota’,municipalitiesandautonomousregions,theabsoluteamountofwaterconservancyinvestmentsmadebyvariouslocalitiesinrecent5yearshasincreasedsubstantiallyinyearsrunning,andsuchinvestmentshavebeenmainlymadeinfarmlandirrigation,consolidationofdangerousreservoirs,landreclamation,,sincethe11thFive-YearPlanperiod,yworksinSichuanprovince,makingup14%,theinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentamountedto755millio,%%icesystem,theinvestmentintheconstructio,theinvestmentintheconstructionofwaterconservancyworksatvariouslevelsaddeduptoonly67millionyuaninJiangsu,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentaccountedfor10millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentaccountedfor10billionyuan,,theinvestmentbythecountygovernmentsaccountedfor43millionyuanandtheself-raisedfundsfromthefarmersamountedto42millionyuan,makingup62%,bytakingtheestablishmentofkeycountiesfortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksastheturningpoint,theJiangsuprovincialgovernmenthasintensifieditsfinancialinvestmentefforts,adjusteditsinvestmentstructureandchangedthefarmer-labor-orientedconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksinthepasttothepresentconstructionbasedmainlyonpublicinvestment,,cyworksinJiangsu,being27timesthatin2005,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentreached376millionyuan,makingup21%,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentreached674millionyuan,makingup37%,theinvestmentbybothmunicipalandcountygovernmentsreached717millionyuan,makingup39%,%mentpatterntakesitsinitialshapeAccordingtothesurveymadebytheresearchgroup,duringthe11thFive-yearPlanperiod,ofthewaterconservancyinvestmentsin6provinces,municipalitiesandautonomousregionsincludingChongqing,Jiangxi,Hubei,Anhui,GansuandInnerMongolia,%,%,%andt%.Inrecentyears,withthewideningcoverageofpublicfinanceinruralareas,thecentralgovernmenthasevidentlyincreaseditsinvestmentintheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,,thecentralgovernmentsetupaspecialsubsidyfundfortheconstructionofs~2010,,,sincethelaunchingofinvestmentprojectbythecentralgovernmentfortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,,theareaofincreasedandrestoredeffectiveirrigatedlandshasreachedmorethan52millionmu,morethan59millionmuofeffectiveirrigatedareashavebeenrecla,mallwaterconservancyworks,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentamountedto378millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentamountedto262millionyuan,theinvestmentbymunicipalandcountygovernmentsamountedto67milliony,atotalof803millionyuanofinvestmentwasmadefortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksinHubei,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentreached321millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentreached168millionyuan,theinvestmentbymunicipalandcountygovernmentsreached84millionyuanandthefarmers’self-raisedfundspaidbylaborreached230millionyuan;andt,37countiesinHubeihavebeenplacedamongthekeycountiesnationwidefortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,withtheinvestmentbyvariouskindsofmajorunitstotalingmorethan1billionyuan,ofwhich42%,duringthe11thFive-YearPlanperiod,theWaterConservancyDepartment,theDepartmentofLandResources,thePovertyAlleviationDepartmentandtheDepartmentforComprehensiveAgriculturalDevelo,%,,,,apatternofinvestmentforsmallwaterconservancyworkshasnowtakeninitialshapeinvariouslocalities,withcentralgovernmentspendingholdingadominantpositionandotherspendingundertakenbygovernmentsatvariouslevelsandwiththeparticipationbyallrelevantdepartments.

ByZhangChenghui,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo030,hmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemhasbeenstudiedforoveradecade,buttherehasbeennosubsTheargumentshavefocusedonthefollowingissues.(1)Iscatastropheinsuranceapolicy-orientedorcommercialsystemHowdowedefinethegovernmentfunctionsinacatastropheinsurancesystemDoesthegovernmentthatestablishesacatastropheinsurancesystemhavetocontributefundsandifsoinwhatwaytomakecontributionsAretheinsurancecompaniesengagedincatastropheinsuranceandthegeneralpublicpurchasingcatastropheinsuranceentitledtopo,ranceandthatexcessdependenceongovernmentsupportmeansthisinsuranceisequivalenttoadirectfiscaldisasterreliefandthesystemdesignwillbecomemeaningless.(2)HowdothegovernmentdepartmentscoordinatewitheachotherWhichgovernmentdepartmentshouldexerciseleadershipoverestablishingcatastropheinsuran,theinsuranceregulatorydepartment,thecivilaffairsdepartment,theprofessionalmanagementdepartments(suchasthoseinchargeofearthquakeadministration,meteorologicaladministration,oceanicadministrationandtheMinistryofWaterResources),theNationalDisasterReductionCommission,disciplinesanddepartments,itrequiresnotonlyclearguidelinesandreliabledesigns,,itwilllacktherequiredauthorityandabilitytocoordinate;butifanadministrativeinstitutionoftheStateCouncildoesthejob,snationalconditionsManyofthepastresearchesaredevotedtothei,,designedforaspecificcatastropheorfordiversecatastrophesShoulditcoverthewholecountryorbeginwithjustoneprovinceHowtoensurethesystemtobebothscientificandoperableWhichoperationalmodelandriskdiversificationmodeshacatastrophefundorthemodelofacatastrophereinsurancecompanyandshoulditendowthereycountriesindicatethatthecoretasksofaca,andtheiroperationshavematuremodels,includingthenonprofitinstitutionalgovernancestructure,,,manyofthemhavebecomeadministrativeonesandhaveastrongimpulseforself-expansio,,whattypeofinstitutionsshouldexerciseleadershipoverthecatastropheinsurancesystemWhiledirectgovernmentmanagementisapparentlyimproper,for-profitcoanagementinstitutionisestablishedtodothejob,howcanweeffectivelycontainitsimpulseforscaleexpansionandrationallycontrolitsoperatingcostsoastomakethecatastropheinsurdingtoChinasnationalconditionsComparedwithothercountries,Chinahassomeuniquecharacteristics,,Chinaisavastcountry,,Sichuan,Qinghai,Tibetandotherplacesinthewestregiona,rainstorms,mudflowsandothernaturaldisastersthathitt,notonlythegeneralpublichasahighacceptanceofinsuranceproducts,butalsohasagreatercapacitytoadoptadvanceddisasterprevent,asthedevelopedregionshaveahighpopulationdensityandahighassetsvalue,,wecannotsimplyc,wecannotintroduceuniformfeerate,weshoulddesignascientificandrationalcatastropheinsurance,theinsuranceindustryasawholeisunderdeveloiseforcatastropheriskmanagementmakesitimpossibletomobilizethe,thepublicpreparednessfornaturaldisastersisverylow,theinfrastructurefordisasterpreventionandlossreductionisunavailable,andsomemeasuresfo,Chinafindsitdifficulttorelyoncommercial,whichhasauthorityandcoordinatingability,shouldexerciseleadershipovertheestablishmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemandshoulde,,skdiversification,,itisnecessarytoadoptacompulsoryorsemi-compulsorymarketingapproach.BySheYu,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo118,2012Thebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationisanimportantchannelforrealizingtheequalizationofthebasicpubliceducationservices,evokedintensepublicresponseandproducedterriblynegativeinfluence,"choiceofschools"hasbeenthedisequilibriumineducationalresourcesbetweenvariousschools,,behindthe"choosingofschools"evenliesthe"choosingofteachers".Tofacilitatethebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationistosetabouttheworkoneducationalinput,resourcesofteachersandschoolstandardization,hebalanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationliesintheequilibriuminresourcesofteachers,whiletheequilibriuminresourcesoftethattheregionalresourcesofteacherscanbeadjustedintermsofknowledgestructure,disciplinarystructure,agestructure,titlestructureandmainstaystructuresoastograduallybridgethegapsamongtheschools,toconscientiouslyimprovetheteachingqualitiesofschoolswithflimsyfoundationsorschoolsinremoteareas,tocooldownthe"school-choosingcraze",establishingtheteachermobilitysystemisacriticalmoveforfacilitatingthebalancedallocationofeducationalresourcesaswellasanimportantbreakthroughtocontainthe"choosingofschools".Internationally,constructionofsuchasystemisalsothemosteffectivepolicy,the"regularmobilitysystem"1forteachersofJapaneseelementaryandmiddleschoolshasbeenanextremelycrucialchannelforfacilitatingthebalanceddevelopmentofteachersamongtheschoolstoboostinturnthebalanceddevelopmentofeducationamongtheschools"educationequalization"policy2focusedontheflowofteachers,SouthKoreahassubstantiallyenhancedthequalityofitscompulsoryeducationacrosstheboardandhasbecomeaworldwideparagonofhigheducationpopularization,"zonesofeducationpriority"policy3andbyproceedingfromteachercultivationcriteriaandunityofwagesofelementaryandsecondaryschoolteachers,Francehascreatedconditionsforflowofteachersonalargescale,thusequalizingtheallocationofteacherstoahigherext,quiteanumberofpeoplenowstillworryaboutthe"similarityofschoolstobeeasilyincurredbyflowofteachers".Compulsoryeducationisamandatoryfreeeducationpracticedbyrvicesthatthecoreofcompulsoryeducationistolaystressonboostingfairnessratherthanseekingdistinctivenesswithregardtobasicschoolfacilities(equipment,booksandschoolbuildings),teachersandunifiedcriteriaonmanagementand,moreover,emphasisshouldbelaidontheprincipleof"ensuringbasiceducationwithmoderatelevels"and"limitingboththelowestandthehighestlevelofeducationfacilities".Internationalexperiencesalsosuggestthatjobrotationandequalizationoffacilities4favorstheequalizationofteachingresourcesandtrentoftheTeacherMobilitySystemIthasbeenexpresslyputforwardintheOutlinefortheNationalMedium-andLong-termEducationalReformandDevelopmentPlan(2010~2020)(hereinafterreferredtoastheEducationPlanningOutline)that"educationalresourcesshouldbeallocatedreasonably"andthat"thesystemforinterchangeofteachersandschoolmastersshouldbecarriedoutwithincounties(regions)".Inrecentyears,usefulex,however,isratherlimitedonthewholeacrossthecountry,andtheimplementationo,whencarryingoutthepoliciesandregulations,withtheproblemsontheinterestandinstitutionallevelsthatneedtobesolvedurgently.e路发体育下载链接

e路发体育下载链接Third,theChineseeconomybeganagradualintegrationwiththeworldeconomyafterChineseChairmanMaoZedongandAmericanPresidentRichardNixonshookpoliti,theformerEastEuropeanandSovietcountriesandsomecountriesinLatinAmerica,thewaveofeconomicinteg,andmadeitpossibleforglobaleconomicdevelopmenttofullyenjoythe"dividendofglobalization"andthe"dividendofpopulation".Asaresult,,thefloatingexchangeratesystemandtheopportunityarisingfromtheeconomicgrowthcycleinthenewroundofglobalization,donceagainfloodedtheworldwi,,rosefromUS$$,$100trillionin2002toUS$516trillionin2007,agrowthofmorethanfivefolds.ByLvWei,ResearchTeamon"SystemandMechanismConducivetoTechnologyReformofTraditionalIndustry",DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo141,2012Therestructuringandupgradingoftraditionalindustriesisnotsomethingthatcanbeaccomplishedovernight,reformoftraditionalindustries,enterprisesintraditionalindustrieshavebeenconstantlyrestructuri,theincreasingfactorpricesandthepressurefromresourcesandenvironmenthavedrivenforwa,modelsandpolicyenvironmentforrestructuringandupgradingtraditionalindustriessuchasapparel,buildingmaterials,displays,computernumericalcontrol(CNC)machinetools,heRestructuringandUpgradingofTraditionalIndustriesThedrivingforceandmodelsofrestructuringandupgradingvaryindifferentindustriesduetotheirdifference,footwearheadwearindustry:increasingfactorcostsdriveforwardtherestructuringandupgraditoacombinationoffactorsincludingtheincreaseinlaborprice,rawmaterialprice,water,electricitygasprices,infinancingandlogisticscosts,tothelostsomeoftheordersforexport,andsomeforeignbrandshavebeguntomovetheirOEM(originalequipmentmanufacturer),somecompetitive,themodelsofenterpriserestructuringandupgradingincludethefollowing:First,updatingequipmenttoimprovelaborproductivity,,suchapparelenterprisesasJiangsu-basedBosidengInternationalHoldingsLimitedandZibo-basedLutaiTextileCo.,"high-efficiencyandshortened-processembeddingspinningtechnology"onitsown,abreakthroughfromthetraditionalspinningtechnology,reducingt,movingfromlow-endmanufacturingtothehighendoft,integratingdomesticandforeignenterprisesandfactorsofproductionwithbrandedenterprisestakingthelead,,somebrandedenterpriseshaveimprovedtheirproductionorganizationandreformedtheirbusinessmodel,suchasprocessingoutsourcing,mergingwithandrestructuringSMEs,,someenterprises,adjustin,someenterprisessuchasWuxi-basedHongdouGroupandTaicang-basedXiangtangGrouphaveenteredthefieldsofbiotechnologyandnewenergy,whilesomehavesteppedintotherealestateindustry,usingprofitsfromnon-corebusinesstosupporttheirbusinessofapparel,:energy-conservationandenvironmental-protectionregulationsaswellasresourcepricesdriveforwardindustrialrestructuringandupgradingThebuildingmaterialsindustryisanendemissionreduction,thecountryhasraisedthestandardsonenvironmentalprotection,energyconservationandemissionreductionandreinforcedlawenforcement,forcingenterprisestomake,thedrasticincreaseinrawmaterialandenergypricesdroveenterprisestotaketheinitiativetoaccelerat,developingnewproductsandextendingtheindustrialchain,buildingmaterialsenterprisesfocusmainlyonupdatingtheirexistingprocessesandequipmentwithth,throughtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionsinternationalcooperationprogramonenergyconservationandemissionreduction,AnhuiConchCementCompanyLimitedcooperatedwithJapaneseKawasakiHeavyIndustries,,whichhasnotonlyprovidedequipmentforitsinternaltechnologicaltransformationintermsofenergyconservationandemissionreductionandrecycling,butledtothefoundingofajointventure–ConchKawasakiEquipmentManufacturingCo.,,alargeprivateglassproducer,hasimplementedwasteheatpowergenerationanddesulphurizationde-dustingprojectsforitsnineproductionlines–withagrossinvestmentofRMB112million–incollaborationwithdomesticcollegesanduniversities,researchinstitutesandenvironmentalequipmentmanufacturers,:theapplicationofnewtechnologiesdrivesforwardtheupgradingofthemanufacturingtechnologyoftheentireindustryThecolorTVmanufacturingin,byintroducingandabsorbingadvancedforeigntechnology,Chinabuiltthecomplete"colorTVset–colorCRT–glassscreen"industrialchain,,theemergenceofLCDtechnologiesdealtaheavyblowontheChinesecolorTVindustry,whitryisthatmostenterpriseshavereplacedtheiroldproductionlineswithimportedones,:ThefirstisdirectlyimportingJapaneseandKoreanproductionlinesthroughjointinvestmentwithsuchcompaniesasSamsung,LG,AUO,CHIMEIandSHARP,,,Beijing-basedBOETechnologyGroupCo.,byacquiringHYDIS,asubsidiaryofHyundaiCorporation,andthroughconstantassimilationandindependentRD,,inclosecollaborationwithTsinghuaUniversity,Beijing-basedVisionoxhasdevelopedkeytechnologiesforOLEDmaterials,componentsandprocesses,successfullyproducedmonochromatic,multicoloredandcoloredPMOLEDdisplaysandcoloredAMOLEDdisplaydevices,andbuiltaPMOLEDdisplayproductionlineinKunshan,:themarketdemandandgovernmentsupportpromotetechnologicalupgradingandinnovationAsatechnology-intensiveequipmentmanufacturingindustry,theCNCmachinetools,theChineseCNCmachinetoolsindustryhasbeentroubledbythelackofcoretechnologies,weeksupportingcapacity,andtheunbalancedproductstructurewithexcessoflow-endproductsandshortageofhigh-endones,sandkeyfunctionalunits,butsomedevelopedcountrieshaveimposedrestrictio,theCNCmachinetoolsindustryhasremainedakeyncludesthehigh-classCNCmachinetoolsandfundamentalmanufacturingtechn,theemergenceofstrategicemergingindustries,andtherapiddevelopmentoftheequipmentmanufacturingindustry,thedomesticdemandonlow-endCNCmachineshasdr,theCNCmachinetoolsindustryisinurgentneedofrestructuringandproductupgrading.

ByShenHengchao,ResearchTeamon"StrategicMajorResearchonBuildingHefeiintoanInnovativeTrialCity",DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch(DRC)ResearchReportNo69,2011Technology-basedsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesarethemostactiveysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,suchasriskinvestment,privatesharesandcorporatebonds,zedenterprises(hereinafterreferredtoassmallandmedium-sizedenterprises).Inrecentyears,localgovernmentshavemadepositiveexplorationultforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestogainaccesstofinancinganditismoredifficultfortheseenterprises,whichhavejustbeenestablishedandareseekingtheirowngrowth,,theseenterprisesusuallygainfinancingbyissuingcorporatebonds,,apartformtheaforesaidwaysforraisingfunds,theycanalsogetfinancedwithloansfromcommercialbanks,,channelsforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoraisefundsinChinaarefewandfarbetween:OTCtradingmarketthatissuitedforprivatesharesandcorporatebondshasnotyetgrownup;thesizeoftheriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupinenterprisesonlargeinvestmentscale;privatesectorborrowinghasbeenlongconductedunderground;commercialbanksarequiteprudentwithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesshortofcollaterals;thethresholdishighforissuingcorporatebonds,publiclistingandissuingcorporatebondsopenly;:Firstistocollectthefundsonthestockmarket;thesecondistostrivetoacquireriskinvestment.(1)Themulti-leveledstockmarketsuitedforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoobtainfinancehasnotyetgrownupIndevelopedcountries,thenationalpubliclistingmarketsatthehighestlevelandthereiveuptotherequirementsforpubliclisting,,naSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionandthesharesshouldbetradedinShenzhenandShanghai;sharesofnon-listingpubliccompanies,ifwithdrawnfromthemarket,shouldbetradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(OldSanBan)atnon-listingcompaniesandthenewlyissuedsharesshouldbetradedontheOTCtradingmarketinTianjin,withthelatterbeingunderconstruction;sharesissuedbynon-publiccompaniesthroughprivatecollectionarecurrentlybeingtradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(NewSanBan)inZhongguancunandatTianjinEquityExchangeandChinaHi-techPropertyExchange(CHTPE),vateshares,yetprivateshareshavenotbecomeaneffectivemeansoffinancingduetotheimpededtradingchannels.(2)Thesizeofriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupingrown-upenterprisesAsanimportantchanneloffinancingforindependentinnovation,,duetotheimpedimentofthewithdrawalchannels,theheavyburdenoftaxationandtheimperfectionofthesystemsrelatingtoprivatelyofferedfunds,thesizeoftheriskinvestmenttendstobesmallandisboundupingrown-upenterprises,makingitdifficulttomeetthedemandofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,thatin2009556briskrisk:Thefirstistogetfinanceddirectlyonthebondmarket;thesecondistogetloansthroughfinancialintermediaries.(1)Issueofenterprisebondsandpublicissueofcorporatebondshavelittletodowithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesIndevelopedcountries,aregistrationsystemiscarriedoutfortrprises,,therehavebeenenterprisebondsiseBondspromulgatedin1993,beingexaminedandapprovedbyNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,andwithenforcementthroughmandatoryadministrativeorder,yuanandthatofthelimitedliabilitycompaniesshallequalnolessthan60millionyuan,,theOT,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesareunabletodothefinancingbyprivatelyofferingcorporatebonds.e路发体育下载链接




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